Nomadic peoples are groups that practice nomadism, which is a form of mobility usually linked to their form of economy, but which can also be practiced for reasons of historical and cultural tradition.
Presents a nomadic lifestyle. Nomadic peoples and tribes
The nomad is a member of a homeless community who regularly moves to the same areas and travels the world. As of 1995, there were around 30-40 million nomads on the planet. They should now be much smaller.
Nomadic hunting and gathering, which takes into account seasonally accessible wild plants and games, is by far the oldest method of supporting human life. Nomadic shepherds raise their flocks, lead them or move with them (riding on them), making routes that usually include pastures and oases.
A nomadic lifestyle involves adapting to arid regions, such as the steppe, the tundra, the desert, where mobility is the most effective strategy to exploit limited resources. For example, many groups in the tundra are reindeer herders and semi-nomads precisely because of the need to feed their animals seasonally.
Sometimes “nomads” are also called various moving groups of the population, who travel in densely populated areas and give themselves not at the expense of natural resources, but offer various services (this can be trade or trade) to the permanent population. These groups are known as peripatetic nomads.
A nomad is a person who does not have a permanent home, moves from place to place to get food, find pasture for cattle, or make a living in another way. The European word “nomad”, which means nomad, comes from the Greek, which literally means “one who wanders in a pasture”. Most nomadic groups follow an annual or seasonal pattern of movement and settlement. Nomads traditionally travel by animals, by canoe or on foot. Today, some travel by car. Housing nomads, however, don’t differ much in diversity.
The reasons for this lifestyle
What have the nomads done and what do they continue to do in our time? For example, the Australian aborigines, the savages of Southeast Asia, Africa traditionally move from one field to another to hunt and collect wild plants.
Some American tribes also followed a nomadic lifestyle. Pastoral nomads earn their living by raising animals such as camels, cattle, goats, horses, sheep or yaks. The Gaddi tribe in Himachal Pradesh in India is one of them. These nomads travel to find more camels, goats and sheep, making a huge journey through the deserts of Arabia and North Africa. Fulani and their cattle travel through the Niger meadows in West Africa. Some nomadic peoples, especially shepherds, may also raid settled communities. These include blacksmiths from Lohar in India, merchants from Rome, and Irish travelers.
Long way to find a home
In the case of Mongolian nomads, the family travels twice a year. It usually occurs in summer and winter. The winter location is close to the mountains in the valley, and most families already have a fixed and favored wintering ground. These places are equipped with animal shelters and are not used by other families in their absence. In the summer, they move to a more open area where cattle graze. Most nomads usually roam the same region and rarely go further.
Community, community, tribe
As they usually circulate over a large area, they become community members of people with similar lifestyles, and all families usually know where others are. They often don’t have the resources to move from one province to another if they don’t leave the area forever. A family can move alone or together with others, and if it leaves alone, its members are usually within a couple of kilometers from the nearest roaming community. There are currently no tribes, so decisions are made between family members, although elders consult on standard community issues. The geographical proximity of families usually leads to mutual support and solidarity.
Nomadic pastoral societies usually cannot boast a large population. One such company, the Mongols, gave birth to the largest empire in the history of the earth. Initially, the Mongols were made up of poorly organized nomadic tribes living in Mongolia, Manchuria, and Siberia. At the end of the 12th century, Genghis Khan united them and other nomadic tribes to establish the Mongol Empire, which eventually spread to all of Asia.
Gypsies are the most famous nomadic people.
Gypsies are a traditionally wandering Indo-Aryan ethnic group living mainly in Europe and America and originating from the North Indian subcontinent – from the regions of Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab.
The houses are a Roma subgroup, often considered a separate people, living throughout the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, Central Asia and parts of the Indian subcontinent. The traditional language of the houses is Damari, the endangered Indo-Aryan language, which makes this person an Indo-Aryan ethnic group. They were associated with another traditionally wandering Indo-Aryan ethnic group, also called the Roma people or Roma people (also known in the Russian language as Roma). These two groups are believed to be separate from each other, or at least partly have a common history. In particular, their ancestors left the North Indian subcontinent between the 6th and 1st centuries. The houses also live in the likeness of a gypsy camp.
Eruk are nomads living in Turkey. However, some groups, such as Sarıkeçililer, continue to lead a nomadic lifestyle, traveling between the coastal cities of the Mediterranean Sea and the Taurus Mountains.
The Mongols are an ethnic group of Central Asian origin, originally from Mongolia and the Chinese province of Mengjiang.
The Mongols are linked by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as Mongolian.
At different times, the Mongolian peoples were equated with the Scythians and Tungus. The characteristics of the nomadic way of life of the Mongols were already evident at that time.